This section will distill several equations regarding antenna theory and connect the dots using words wrapped around the concepts to enable a complete understanding of antenna theory --- for any technical level.


Part 1: The vast difference between electron flow and electric current/displacement flow in a conductor.

To distinguish and visualize the difference between Electron flow and electric current/displacement in a conductor we use the Newtons Cradle instrument --- often considered a toy.  It is used to demonstrate transmission line logic including how waves of electric current propagate in a conductor, impedance mismatch, reflected waves, etc. etc.etc.

A.  Basic mechanics of wave propagation in a conductor.

        1.  Watch this video noting that one bearing is launched at a second resulting in the launched bearing  comming to a stop and the second accellerating to the same speed/energy level as the first.    Video clip 1 bearing slow .  The concept here is, when a bearing is launched at a second  stationary bearing that weighs the same, the first will come to rest almost exactly where it  contacted the second and the energy from the first will be transferred to the second with no  perceptable movement.


You have just seen


Video clip 1 bearing slow

Video clip 1 bearing 5 total slow

Video clip 3 bearings slow

Video clip measuring suge impedance of single wire

Video Clip of Surge Current as voltage is applied to 54 foot wire. 

Schematic of circuit used to measure surge impedance and velocity factor in feed line and single wire.

Schematic update for surge impedance




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