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 ANTENNA PHYSICS This section will distill several equations regarding antenna theory and connect the dots using words wrapped around the concepts to enable a complete understanding of antenna theory --- for any technical level.  Part 1: The vast difference between electron flow and electric current/displacement flow in a conductor. To distinguish and visualize the difference between Electron flow and electric current/displacement in a conductor we use the Newtons Cradle instrument --- often considered a toy.  It is used to demonstrate transmission line logic including how waves of electric current propagate in a conductor, impedance mismatch, reflected waves, etc. etc.etc.A.  Basic mechanics of wave propagation in a conductor. Watch this video noting that one bearing is launched at a second resulting in the launched bearing  coming to a stop and the second accelerating to the same speed/energy level as the first.    Video clip 1 bearing slow .  The concept here is, when a bearing is launched at a second  stationary bearing that weighs the same, the first will come to rest exactly the depth of compression plus decompression which is approximately 10 nano-inches and the energy from the first will be transferred to the second.  The displacement current was probably close to 700MPH.   Think of the momentum/velocity as the magnetic energy and the compression the electric field.  Look at 1 bearing of 5.  Each bearing is accelerated contacting the adjacent, compressing decompressing individually and passing the energy to the next while coming to a stop almost in place.     Sweep of coax balance  Coax balance at 1MHzCoax balance at 2MHzCoax balance at 5MHzCoax balance at 30MHzCoax balance at 10MHzCoax balance at 50MHzCoax balance at 500KHz      Sweep proof of 50R coax balanced media  .5wl grounded line 1  .5wl TLT 1968 K9AXN.docxHand written Radiation resistance of 1/8wl dipole  Scan20230422 160210.jpgScratch Design a 1/4wl DipoleScratch Design 1/4wl Dipole img  Scan20230428 102324.jpg
 CALCULATE CAPACITANCE OF STRAIGHT WIRE:See page 586 for equation and 609 for table and K factor Video clip 1 bearing slowVideo clip good 1 bearing slowVideo clip 1 bearing 5 total slowVideo clip 3 bearings slow  Video Clip of Surge Current as voltage is applied to 54 foot wire.   Schematic update for surge impedance Schematic update 2 for surge impedance  Measuring the surge impedance with inadequate groundMeasuring the surge impedance and velocity factor of a single wire  Measuring the surge impedance of 75 ohm coax with scope probe on feed point and end of coax   Single wire snapshot of surge impedance Part 1 final 6  END FED DISTRIBUTED AND LUMPEDCENTER FED DISTRIBUTED AND LUMPEDSurge impedance in spaceInverted V and effect on feed lineINVERTED V JPG
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